Treatment for gestation diabetes

What Is Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a disorder that causes elevated blood sugar levels during pregnancy. It affects up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States each year. It affects women who are pregnant but have never been diagnosed with diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is divided into two categories. Diet and exercise can help women with class A1 manage their condition. Those with A2 diabetes must use insulin or other drugs.

After you give delivery, gestational diabetes disappears. However, it can harm your baby’s health and increase your chances of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. You may take efforts to keep yourself and your child healthy.



Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes

Women with gestational diabetes may have no symptoms or mistakenly attribute them to pregnancy. The majority of people find out they have it through a routine test.

You may have noticed:

  • You seem to be thirstier than normal.
  • You’re hungrier than normal and consume more food than usual.
  • You pee more frequently than normal.

What causes gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is hypothesized to develop as a result of the numerous hormonal and non-hormonal changes that occur in the body during pregnancy, which predispose certain women to become insulin resistant. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by specialized cells that helps the body to effectively digest glucose for later use as fuel (energy). Blood glucose levels rise when insulin levels are low or the body is unable to utilise insulin effectively (i.e., insulin resistance).

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What are risk factors for gestational diabetes?

In late pregnancy, some insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance is normal. However, in some women, this is sufficient to cause pregnancy diabetes, also known as gestational diabetes. There are a number of risk factors that can raise your chances of developing gestational diabetes, including:

  • Obesity
  • A history of gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy
  • Previous delivery of an infant with a high birth weight (over 9 pounds)
  • A parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes
  • A personal history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • African American, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic, or Pacific Islander American ethnicity
  • Having prediabetes

Related Health Problems

Pregnancy can raise your risk of high blood pressure if you have gestational diabetes. It can also raise your chances of having a large baby who requires a cesarean delivery (C-section).

If you have gestational diabetes, your baby is more likely to develop the following problems:

  • Being extremely huge (9 pounds or more), which can complicate delivery
  • Early birth, which can cause respiratory and other issues
  • Low blood sugar levels
  • Later-life onset of type 2 diabetes

After your baby is born, your blood sugar levels should return to normal. However, roughly half of women who develop gestational diabetes go on to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. After delivery, you can reduce your risk by maintaining a healthy body weight. To ensure that your blood sugar levels are on track, see your doctor 6 to 12 weeks after your kid is delivered and then every 1 to 3 years.

Tests and Diagnosis for Gestational Diabetes

In most cases, gestational diabetes develops in the second half of pregnancy. Between weeks 24 and 28, or sooner if you’re at high risk, your doctor will check for it.




A glucose tolerance test will be administered by your doctor: You’ll consume 50 grams of glucose in a sweet drink, causing your blood sugar to rise. You’ll take a blood glucose test an hour later to see how you’re doing. If your blood sugar is higher than a certain threshold, you’ll require a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test, which involves doing a blood glucose test three hours after drinking a 100-gram glucose drink. Your doctor can also test you by giving you a 75-gram glucose drink and a 2-hour blood glucose test after you’ve fasted for 12 hours.

If your test results are normal but you’re at high risk, your doctor may test you again later in the pregnancy to make sure you don’t have it.

Gestational Diabetes Causes Issues During Pregnancy

Uncontrolled blood sugar in a pregnant woman with gestational diabetes can cause issues for both the mother and the baby:

  • An Extra Large Baby   The baby’s blood sugar will be high if the diabetes is not effectively controlled. The baby gets “overfed” and becomes disproportionately huge. An extremely large baby can cause issues during delivery for both the mother and the baby, in addition to causing discomfort to the woman throughout the last few months of pregnancy. To deliver the baby, the mother may require a C-Section. Because of the strain on the shoulder during delivery, the infant may be born with nerve damage.
  • C-Section (Cesarean Section)  A C-section is a procedure in which the baby is delivered via the mother’s stomach. A woman with poorly controlled diabetes has an increased likelihood of needing a C-section to deliver her baby. It takes longer for a mother to recuperate from childbirth when the baby is delivered via C-section.
  • High Blood Pressure (Preeclampsia)  Preeclampsia occurs when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure, protein in her urine, and persistent swelling in her fingers and toes. It’s a major problem that her doctor will need to monitor and manage. Both the lady and her unborn child might be harmed by high blood pressure. It could cause the baby to be born prematurely, as well as seizures or a stroke in the mother during labor and delivery (a blood clot or bleed in the brain that can cause brain damage). High blood pressure is more common in diabetic women than in non-diabetic women.
  • Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)    People with diabetes who take insulin or other diabetes treatments may experience dangerously low blood sugar levels. If not treated promptly, low blood sugar can be highly dangerous, even fatal. Women who closely monitor their blood sugar and treat low blood sugar early can avoid serious low blood sugar.If a woman’s diabetes was poorly managed during pregnancy, her infant can suffer low blood sugar very rapidly after birth. After delivery, the baby’s blood sugar must be monitored for many hours.

Treatment

Treatment for gestational diabetes includes the following:

  • Lifestyle changes
  • Blood sugar monitoring
  • Medication, if necessary

Keeping your blood sugar levels under control is important for both you and your baby’s health. Close supervision can also aid in the prevention of difficulties throughout pregnancy and delivery.

Lifestyle changes

Maintaining a healthy blood sugar level requires a healthy lifestyle, which includes how you eat and move. During pregnancy, doctors advise against losing weight because your body is working overtime to support your growing kid. Your doctor, on the other hand, can help you set weight gain objectives depending on your pre-pregnancy weight.

Healthy diet

A healthy diet emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein – foods high in nutrition and fiber while being low in fat and calories — while avoiding overly refined carbs, such as sweets. A certified dietitian or a diabetic educator can assist you in developing a meal plan that takes into account your present weight, pregnancy weight gain objectives, blood sugar level, activity habits, and dietary preferences.

Stay active

Before, during, and after pregnancy, every woman’s fitness plan should include regular physical activity. Regular exercise can help ease several typical pregnant discomforts, such as back pain, muscle cramps, swelling, constipation, and difficulty sleeping, as well as lower your blood sugar.






Aim for 30 minutes of moderate activity on most days of the week with your doctor’s permission. If you haven’t been active in a while, begin slowly and gradually increase your activity level. During pregnancy, walking, cycling, and swimming are all good options. Housework and gardening are examples of everyday tasks that can be counted.

Monitor your blood sugar

Your doctor may advise you to check your blood sugar four or more times a day — first thing in the morning and after meals — while you’re pregnant to ensure it stays within a healthy range.

Medication

If diet and exercise aren’t enough to control your blood sugar, insulin injections may be required. Between 10% and 20% of women with gestational diabetes use insulin to achieve their blood sugar targets. Some doctors prescribe an oral prescription to regulate blood sugar, while others believe that additional study is needed to prove that oral medications are as safe and effective as injectable insulin in controlling glucose.

Get Tested for Diabetes after Pregnancy

Get your baby checked for diabetes 6 to 12 weeks after birth, and then every 1 to 3 years after that.
The diabetes in most women who have gestational diabetes goes away soon after delivery. Type 2 diabetes is defined as diabetes that does not go away. Even if the diabetes goes away after the baby is born, half of all pregnant women get type 2 diabetes later in life. To avoid or delay type 2 diabetes, a woman who has had gestational diabetes should continue to exercise and eat a balanced diet after pregnancy. She should also make an appointment with her doctor every 1 to 3 years to have her blood sugar checked.

Close monitoring of your baby

Close monitoring of your infant is a vital element of your treatment approach. Repeated ultrasounds or other tests may be used by your doctor to monitor your baby’s growth and development. Your doctor may induce labor if you don’t go into labor by your due date – or occasionally much earlier. If you deliver after your due date, you and your baby are at a higher risk of difficulties.

Follow-up after delivery

Your blood sugar will be checked after delivery and again in six to twelve weeks to ensure that it has returned to normal. If your tests are normal, which they usually are, you’ll need to have your diabetes risk reviewed every three years at the very least.




If future tests reveal that you have type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, talk to your doctor about stepping up your preventative efforts or beginning a diabetes management plan.

Prevention

If you’re overweight and do regular physical activity before getting pregnant, you might be able to avoid gestational diabetes.

If you’re already pregnant, don’t strive to lose weight. For your kid to be healthy, you’ll need to acquire some weight—but not too quickly. Consult your doctor about how much weight you should acquire during your pregnancy to ensure a healthy outcome.

How is gestational diabetes treated if diet and physical activity aren’t enough?

If sticking to your diet and staying active aren’t enough to keep your blood glucose levels within your desired range, insulin may be required.

Your health care staff will show you how to give yourself insulin shots if you need it. Insulin will not damage your baby and is often the primary line of diabetes treatment for pregnant women. The diabetes medications metformin and glyburide are being studied for their safety during pregnancy, but further long-term trials are needed. Consult your doctor to determine the best treatment option for you.

Summary

Gestational diabetes normally disappears following the birth of a child. However, if you’ve experienced gestational diabetes, there’s a two-in-three chance it’ll come back in subsequent pregnancies. Pregnancy, on the other hand, can reveal type 1 or type 2 diabetes in a few women. It’s difficult to tell if these women have gestational diabetes or have just begun to show signs of diabetes during pregnancy, but they’ll need to keep taking their diabetic medication after the baby is born.

Many women who suffer gestational diabetes subsequently develop type 2 diabetes. Because both gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes include insulin resistance, there appears to be a relationship between the two. However, certain basic lifestyle changes may help prevent diabetes after gestational diabetes.

Treatment for gestation diabetes

Treatment for gestation diabetes

Treatment for gestation diabetes

Cleveland Clinic

Treatment for gestation diabetes

Treatment for gestation diabetes

Treatment for gestation diabetes