bone cancer treatment

What Is Bone Cancer?

The following material focuses on primary bone malignancies (cancers that begin in the bones), which are most commonly encountered in adults.Osteosarcoma, Ewing Sarcomas (Ewing sarcomas), and Bone Metastases are all discussed separately.






When cells proliferate out of control, cancer develops.Cancerous cells can arise in almost any part of the body and subsequently spread (metastasize) to other sections of the body.

Bone cancer is a rare cancer that develops when cells in the bone begin to grow out of control.Knowing a little about normal bone tissue can help you understand bone cancer.

The structure of bone, including cartilage, periosteum, spongy bone, and the medullary cavity, is seen in this illustration.

A cross slice of a bone is also shown, with blood vessels, periosteum, compact bone, spongy bone, edosteum, and the medullary cavity visible.

Bones make up the structural framework of your body.Inside the hard, outer layer of bones, compact (cortical) bone covers the lighter spongy (trabecular) bone.

The periosteum is a fibrous tissue that covers the bone’s surface.The medullary cavity is a compartment inside some bones that contains the soft, spongy tissue known as bone marrow (discussed below).The endosteum is the tissue that lines the medullary cavity.

Most bones begin as cartilage, which is a softer, more flexible tissue.The body’s cells subsequently deposit calcium onto the cartilage, forming bone.Cartilage may stay at the ends of the bone after it has formed to act as a cushion between the bones.A joint is made up of cartilage, ligaments, and other tissues that link bones.Cartilage is mostly located at the ends of some bones that make up a joint in adults.

Symptoms Bone Cancer:

Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include:

Bone pain

Swelling and discomfort in the vicinity of the injured area

Fractured bone due to weakened bone

Fatigue

Weight loss that was unintentional

When to see a doctor:

If you or your kid develops bone pain that: comes and goes, make an appointment with your doctor.



It gets worse at night.

Over-the-counter pain medications are ineffective.

Causes:

The majority of bone malignancies have no recognized cause.Hereditary factors have been associated to a small number of bone malignancies, whereas others have been connected to previous radiation exposure.

Types of bone cancer:

Bone cancers are classified according to the type of cell that the malignancy started in.The following are the most prevalent kinds of bone cancer:

Osteosarcoma. The most frequent type of bone cancer is osteosarcoma.The malignant cells in this tumor generate bone.The bones of the leg or arm are the most commonly affected by this type of bone cancer in children and young people.Osteosarcomas can develop outside of bones in rare cases (extraskeletal osteosarcomas).

Chondrosarcoma. The second most frequent type of bone cancer is chondrosarcoma.



The malignant cells in this tumor create cartilage.In middle-aged and older adults, chondrosarcoma commonly develops in the pelvis, legs, or arms.Ewing sarcoma is a type of cancer.The most prevalent sites for Ewing sarcoma tumors in children and young adults are the pelvis, legs, and arms.

Risk factors:

Although the exact origin of bone cancer is unknown, scientists have discovered that some factors are linked to an increased risk, including:

Genetic syndromes that are inherited.Li-Fraumeni syndrome and hereditary retinoblastoma are two rare genetic diseases that enhance the risk of bone cancer in families.

Paget’s disease is a bone disease.Paget’s disease of the bone, which is most frequent in elderly persons, can raise the risk of developing bone cancer later in life.

Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment.Large doses of radiation, such as those used in cancer radiation therapy, increase the chance of developing bone cancer in the future.

Diagnosis

Imaging scans can help doctors figure out where and how big bone tumors are, as well as whether they’ve spread to other parts of the body.The imaging tests that are indicated are based on your specific signs and symptoms.The following tests may be performed:

Bone scan

Computerized tomography (CT)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Positron emission tomography (PET)

X-ray

 

Needle or surgical biopsies:

A procedure to take a sample of tissue (biopsy) from the tumor for laboratory testing may be recommended by your doctor.Your doctor can use testing to determine if the tissue is malignant and, if so, what form of cancer you have.It can also tell if tumor cells are rapidly or slowly developing.



The following are examples of biopsy methods used to diagnose bone cancer:

Inserting a needle through your skin and into a tumo.:

Your doctor will introduce a small needle through your skin and guide it into the tumor during a needle biopsy.The needle is used by your doctor to remove small fragments of tissue from the tumor.

Surgery to remove a tissue sample for testing:

Your doctor will make an incision through your skin and remove the entire tumor or a portion of it during a surgical biopsy.

Your medical team must carefully plan the sort of biopsy you require and the specifics of how it should be conducted.The biopsy must be done in such a way that it does not interfere with future surgery to remove bone cancer.As a result, before your biopsy, ask your doctor for a referral to a group of experts who have considerable experience treating bone cancers.

 

Stages of bone cancer:

If your doctor confirms a diagnosis of bone cancer, he or she will try to establish the cancer’s extent (stage) because this will help you choose the best treatment options.Consider the following factors:

The size of the tumor

How fast the cancer is growing

The number of bones affected, such as adjacent vertebrae in the spine

Whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body

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Roman numerals are used to designate the stages of bone cancer, which range from 0 to IV.The lower the stage, the smaller and less aggressive the tumor is.The cancer has progressed to other places of the body at stage IV.

 

Treatment:

The type of cancer you have, the stage of the illness, your overall health, and your preferences all influence your treatment options for bone cancer.Different types of bone cancer react to different treatments, and your doctor can advise you on the best option for you.Some bone tumors, for example, are treated solely with surgery, while others are treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Surgery:

The purpose of surgery is to remove the malignant tumor in its entirety.In most situations, this entails using specialized procedures to remove the tumor in one piece, along with a tiny part of surrounding healthy tissue.The surgeon replaces the missing bone with bone from another part of your body, material from a bone bank, or a metal and hard plastic replacement.



Bone tumors that are exceedingly big or at a difficult location on the bone may necessitate amputation of all or part of a leg (amputation).Amputation is becoming less prevalent as new treatments are developed.If you need an amputation, you’ll most likely be provided with an artificial limb and go through training to learn how to use it for everyday duties.

Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy kills cancer cells by administering powerful anti-cancer medications into a vein (intravenously).However, certain types of bone cancer respond better to this treatment than others.Chemotherapy, for example, isn’t very successful for chondrosarcoma, but it’s a crucial part of the treatment for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.

Radiation therapy:

To kill cancer cells, radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy, such as X-rays.You lie on a table during radiation therapy as a special equipment rotates around you, aiming energy beams at specific points on your body.

Before an operation, radiation therapy is frequently utilized to reduce the tumor and make it easier to remove.As a result, there’s a better chance that amputation won’t be necessary.

People with bone cancer that cannot be removed through surgery may benefit from radiation therapy.Radiation therapy may be performed after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain.Radiation therapy may assist people with advanced bone cancer manage their signs and symptoms, such as pain.

bone cancer treatment

Mayo Clinic